The Book of Job, named after its protagonist (apparently not an Israelite; cf. Ez 14:14, 20), is an exquisite dramatic treatment of the problem of the suffering of the innocent. The contents of the book, together with its artistic structure and elegant style, place it among the literary masterpieces of all time. This is a literary composition, and not a transcript of historical events and conversations.

The prologue (chaps. 12) provides the setting for Job’s testing. When challenged by the satan’s questioning of Job’s sincerity, the Lord gives leave for a series of catastrophes to afflict Job. Three friends come to console him. Job breaks out in complaint (chap. 3), and a cycle of speeches begins. Job’s friends insist that his plight can only be a punishment for personal wrongdoing and an invitation from God to repent. Job rejects their inadequate explanation and challenges God to respond (chaps. 331). A young bystander, Elihu, now delivers four speeches in support of the views of the three friends (chaps. 3237). In response to Job’s plea that he be allowed to see God and hear directly the reason for his suffering, the Lord answers (38:142:6), not by explaining divine justice, but by cataloguing the wonders of creation. Job is apparently content with this, and, in an epilogue (42:717), the Lord restores Job’s fortune.

The author or authors of the book are unknown; it was probably composed some time between the seventh and fifth centuries B.C. Its literary pattern, with speeches, prologue and epilogue disposed according to a studied plan, indicates that the purpose of the writing is didactic. But the lessons that the book teaches are not transparent, and different interpretations of the divine speeches and of the final chapter are possible. The Book of Job does not definitively answer the problem of the suffering of the innocent, but challenges readers to come to their own understanding.

The Book of Job can be divided as follows:

  1. Prologue (1:12:13)
  2. First Cycle of Speeches (3:114:22)
  3. Second Cycle of Speeches (15:121:34)
  4. Third Cycle of Speeches (22:127:21)
  5. The Poem on Wisdom (28:128)
  6. Job’s Final Summary of His Cause (29:131:37)
  7. Elihu’s Speeches (32:137:24)
  8. The Lord and Job Meet (38:142:6)
  9. Epilogue (42:717)


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