Phoebe Commended. 1* I commend to you Phoebe our sister, who is [also] a minister* of the church at Cenchreae,a 2that you may receive her in the Lord in a manner worthy of the holy ones, and help her in whatever she may need from you, for she has been a benefactor to many and to me as well.

Paul’s Greetings. 3Greet Prisca and Aquila,* my co-workers in Christ Jesus,b 4who risked their necks for my life, to whom not only I am grateful but also all the churches of the Gentiles; 5greet also the church at their house.* Greet my beloved Epaenetus, who was the firstfruits in Asia for Christ.c 6Greet Mary, who has worked hard for you. 7Greet Andronicus and Junia,* my relatives and my fellow prisoners; they are prominent among the apostles and they were in Christ before me. 8Greet Ampliatus, my beloved in the Lord. 9Greet Urbanus, our co-worker in Christ, and my beloved Stachys. 10Greet Apelles, who is approved in Christ. Greet those who belong to the family of Aristobulus. 11Greet my relative Herodion. Greet those in the Lord who belong to the family of Narcissus. 12Greet those workers in the Lord, Tryphaena and Tryphosa. Greet the beloved Persis, who has worked hard in the Lord. 13Greet Rufus,* chosen in the Lord, and his mother and mine.d 14Greet Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, Hermas, and the brothers who are with them. 15Greet Philologus, Julia, Nereus and his sister, and Olympas, and all the holy ones who are with them. 16Greet one another with a holy kiss. All the churches of Christ greet you.e

Against Factions. 17* I urge you, brothers, to watch out for those who create dissensions and obstacles, in opposition to the teaching that you learned; avoid them.f 18For such people do not serve our Lord Christ but their own appetites, and by fair and flattering speech they deceive the hearts of the innocent.g 19For while your obedience is known to all, so that I rejoice over you, I want you to be wise as to what is good, and simple as to what is evil;h 20then the God of peace will quickly crush Satan* under your feet. The grace of our Lord Jesus be with you.i

Greetings from Corinth. 21Timothy, my co-worker, greets you; so do Lucius and Jason and Sosipater, my relatives.j 22I, Tertius, the writer of this letter, greet you in the Lord. 23k Gaius, who is host to me and to the whole church, greets you. Erastus,* the city treasurer, and our brother Quartus greet you. 24* (

Doxology.* 25[Now to him who can strengthen you, according to my gospel and the proclamation of Jesus Christ,l according to the revelation of the mystery kept secret for long ages* 26but now manifested through the prophetic writings and, according to the command of the eternal God, made known to all nations to bring about the obedience of faith,m 27to the only wise God, through Jesus Christ be glory forever and ever. Amen.]n

* [16:123] Some authorities regard these verses as a later addition to the letter, but in general the evidence favors the view that they were included in the original. Paul endeavors through the long list of greetings (Rom 16:316, 2123) to establish strong personal contact with congregations that he has not personally encountered before. The combination of Jewish and Gentile names dramatically attests the unity in the gospel that transcends previous barriers of nationality, religious ceremony, or racial status.

* [16:1] Minister: in Greek, diakonos; see note on Phil 1:1.

* [16:3] Prisca and Aquila: presumably the couple mentioned at Acts 18:2; 1 Cor 16:19; 2 Tm 4:19.

* [16:5] The church at their house: i.e., that meets there. Such local assemblies (cf. 1 Cor 16:19; Col 4:15; Phlm 2) might consist of only one or two dozen Christians each. It is understandable, therefore, that such smaller groups might experience difficulty in relating to one another on certain issues. Firstfruits: cf. Rom 8:23; 11:16; 1 Cor 16:15.

* [16:7] The name Junia is a woman’s name. One ancient Greek manuscript and a number of ancient versions read the name “Julia.” Most editors have interpreted it as a man’s name, Junias.

* [16:13] This Rufus cannot be identified to any degree of certainty with the Rufus of Mk 15:21.

* [16:1718] Paul displays genuine concern for the congregations in Rome by warning them against self-seeking teachers. It would be a great loss, he intimates, if their obedience, which is known to all (cf. Rom 1:8), would be diluted.

* [16:20] This verse contains the only mention of Satan in Romans.

* [16:23] This Erastus is not necessarily to be identified with the Erastus of Acts 19:22 or of 2 Tm 4:20.

* [16:24] Some manuscripts add, similarly to Rom 16:20, “The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.”

* [16:2527] This doxology is assigned variously to the end of Rom 14; 15; 16 in the manuscript tradition. Some manuscripts omit it entirely. Whether written by Paul or not, it forms an admirable conclusion to the letter at this point.

* [16:25] Paul’s gospel reveals the mystery kept secret for long ages: justification and salvation through faith, with all the implications for Jews and Gentiles that Paul has developed in the letter.

a. [16:1] Acts 18:18.

b. [16:3] Acts 18:2, 1826; 1 Cor 16:19; 2 Tm 4:19.

c. [16:5] 1 Cor 16:19; Col 4:15; Phlm 2 / 1 Cor 16:15.

d. [16:13] Mk 15:21.

e. [16:16] 1 Cor 16:20; 2 Cor 13:12; 1 Thes 5:26; 1 Pt 5:14.

f. [16:17] Mt 7:15; Ti 3:10.

g. [16:18] Phil 3:1819; Col 2:4; 2 Pt 2:3.

h. [16:19] 1:8; Mt 10:16; 1 Cor 14:20.

i. [16:20] 15:33; Gn 3:15; Lk 10:19 / 1 Cor 16:23; 1 Thes 5:28; 2 Thes 3:18.

j. [16:21] Acts 16:12; 19:22; 20:4; 1 Cor 4:17; 16:10; Phil 2:1922; Heb 13:23.

k. [16:23] Acts 19:29; 1 Cor 1:14 / 2 Tm 4:20.

l. [16:25] 1 Cor 2:7; Eph 1:9; 3:39; Col 1:26.

m. [16:26] 2 Tm 1:10 / 1:5; Eph 3:45, 9; 1 Pt 1:20.

n. [16:27] 11:36; Gal 1:5; Eph 3:2021; Phil 4:20; 1 Tm 1:17; 2 Tm 4:18; Heb 13:21; 1 Pt 4:11; 2 Pt 3:18; Jude 25; Rev 1:6.

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