The Conspiracy Against Jesus. 1a Now the feast of Unleavened Bread, called the Passover,* was drawing near, 2b and the chief priests and the scribes were seeking a way to put him to death, for they were afraid of the people. 3c Then Satan entered into Judas,* the one surnamed Iscariot, who was counted among the Twelve,d 4and he went to the chief priests and temple guards to discuss a plan for handing him over to them. 5They were pleased and agreed to pay him money. 6He accepted their offer and sought a favorable opportunity to hand him over to them in the absence of a crowd.
Preparations for the Passover.e 7When the day of the feast of Unleavened Bread arrived, the day for sacrificing the Passover lamb,f 8he sent out Peter and John, instructing them, “Go and make preparations for us to eat the Passover.” 9They asked him, “Where do you want us to make the preparations?” 10And he answered them, “When you go into the city, a man will meet you carrying a jar of water.* Follow him into the house that he enters 11and say to the master of the house, ‘The teacher says to you, “Where is the guest room where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?”’ 12He will show you a large upper room that is furnished. Make the preparations there.” 13Then they went off and found everything exactly as he had told them, and there they prepared the Passover.g
The Last Supper.h 14When the hour came, he took his place at table with the apostles. 15He said to them, “I have eagerly desired to eat this Passover* with you before I suffer, 16for, I tell you, I shall not eat it [again] until there is fulfillment in the kingdom of God.”i 17Then he took a cup,* gave thanks, and said, “Take this and share it among yourselves; 18for I tell you [that] from this time on I shall not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.” 19* j Then he took the bread, said the blessing, broke it, and gave it to them, saying, “This is my body, which will be given for you; do this in memory of me.” 20And likewise the cup after they had eaten, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which will be shed for you.k
The Betrayal Foretold. 21l“And yet behold, the hand of the one who is to betray me is with me on the table; 22for the Son of Man indeed goes as it has been determined; but woe to that man by whom he is betrayed.” 23And they began to debate among themselves who among them would do such a deed.
The Role of the Disciples. 24* Then an argument broke out among themm about which of them should be regarded as the greatest. 25* n He said to them, “The kings of the Gentiles lord it over them and those in authority over them are addressed as ‘Benefactors’; 26but among you it shall not be so. Rather, let the greatest among you be as the youngest, and the leader as the servant.o 27For who is greater: the one seated at table or the one who serves? Is it not the one seated at table? I am among you as the one who serves. 28It is you who have stood by me in my trials; 29and I confer a kingdom on you, just as my Father has conferred one on me,p 30that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom; and you will sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.q
Peter’s Denial Foretold.r 31* “Simon, Simon, behold Satan has demanded to sift all of you* like wheat,s 32but I have prayed that your own faith may not fail; and once you have turned back, you must strengthen your brothers.” 33He said to him, “Lord, I am prepared to go to prison and to die with you.”t 34But he replied, “I tell you, Peter, before the cock crows this day, you will deny three times that you know me.”u
Instructions for the Time of Crisis. 35v He said to them, “When I sent you forth without a money bag or a sack or sandals, were you in need of anything?” “No, nothing,” they replied. 36w He said to them,* “But now one who has a money bag should take it, and likewise a sack, and one who does not have a sword should sell his cloak and buy one. 37For I tell you that this scripture must be fulfilled in me, namely, ‘He was counted among the wicked’; and indeed what is written about me is coming to fulfillment.”x 38Then they said, “Lord, look, there are two swords here.” But he replied, “It is enough!”*
The Agony in the Garden.y 39Then going out he went, as was his custom, to the Mount of Olives, and the disciples followed him. 40When he arrived at the place he said to them, “Pray that you may not undergo the test.”z 41After withdrawing about a stone’s throw from them and kneeling, he prayed,a 42saying, “Father, if you are willing, take this cup away from me; still, not my will but yours be done.”b *[43And to strengthen him an angel from heaven appeared to him. 44He was in such agony and he prayed so fervently that his sweat became like drops of blood falling on the ground.] 45When he rose from prayer and returned to his disciples, he found them sleeping from grief. 46He said to them, “Why are you sleeping? Get up and pray that you may not undergo the test.”c
The Betrayal and Arrest of Jesus.d 47While he was still speaking, a crowd approached and in front was one of the Twelve, a man named Judas. He went up to Jesus to kiss him. 48Jesus said to him, “Judas, are you betraying the Son of Man with a kiss?” 49His disciples realized what was about to happen, and they asked, “Lord, shall we strike with a sword?”e 50And one of them struck the high priest’s servant and cut off his right ear.f 51* But Jesus said in reply, “Stop, no more of this!” Then he touched the servant’s ear and healed him. 52And Jesus said to the chief priests and temple guards and elders who had come for him, “Have you come out as against a robber, with swords and clubs?g 53Day after day I was with you in the temple area, and you did not seize me; but this is your hour, the time for the power of darkness.”h
Peter’s Denial of Jesus. 54i After arresting him they led him away and took him into the house of the high priest; Peter was following at a distance.j 55They lit a fire in the middle of the courtyard and sat around it, and Peter sat down with them. 56When a maid saw him seated in the light, she looked intently at him and said, “This man too was with him.” 57But he denied it saying, “Woman, I do not know him.” 58A short while later someone else saw him and said, “You too are one of them”; but Peter answered, “My friend, I am not.” 59About an hour later, still another insisted, “Assuredly, this man too was with him, for he also is a Galilean.” 60But Peter said, “My friend, I do not know what you are talking about.” Just as he was saying this, the cock crowed, 61and the Lord turned and looked at Peter;* and Peter remembered the word of the Lord, how he had said to him, “Before the cock crows today, you will deny me three times.”k 62He went out and began to weep bitterly. 63l The men who held Jesus in custody were ridiculing and beating him. 64They blindfolded him and questioned him, saying, “Prophesy! Who is it that struck you?” 65And they reviled him in saying many other things against him.
Jesus Before the Sanhedrin.* 66m When day came the council of elders of the people met, both chief priests and scribes,n and they brought him before their Sanhedrin.* 67They said, “If you are the Messiah, tell us,” but he replied to them, “If I tell you, you will not believe,o 68and if I question, you will not respond. 69But from this time on the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the power of God.”p 70They all asked, “Are you then the Son of God?” He replied to them, “You say that I am.” 71Then they said, “What further need have we for testimony? We have heard it from his own mouth.”
* [22:1–23:56a] The passion narrative. Luke is still dependent upon Mark for the composition of the passion narrative but has incorporated much of his own special tradition into the narrative. Among the distinctive sections in Luke are: (1) the tradition of the institution of the Eucharist (Lk 22:15–20); (2) Jesus’ farewell discourse (Lk 22:21–38); (3) the mistreatment and interrogation of Jesus (Lk 22:63–71); (4) Jesus before Herod and his second appearance before Pilate (Lk 23:6–16); (5) words addressed to the women followers on the way to the crucifixion (Lk 23:27–32); (6) words to the penitent thief (Lk 23:39–41); (7) the death of Jesus (Lk 23:46, 47b–49). Luke stresses the innocence of Jesus (Lk 23:4, 14–15, 22) who is the victim of the powers of evil (Lk 22:3, 31, 53) and who goes to his death in fulfillment of his Father’s will (Lk 22:42, 46). Throughout the narrative Luke emphasizes the mercy, compassion, and healing power of Jesus (Lk 22:51; 23:43) who does not go to death lonely and deserted, but is accompanied by others who follow him on the way of the cross (Lk 23:26–31, 49).
* [22:1] Feast of Unleavened Bread, called the Passover: see note on Mk 14:1.
* [22:3] Satan entered into Judas: see note on Lk 4:13.
* [22:10] A man will meet you carrying a jar of water: see note on Mk 14:13.
* [22:15] This Passover: Luke clearly identifies this last supper of Jesus with the apostles as a Passover meal that commemorated the deliverance of the Israelites from slavery in Egypt. Jesus reinterprets the significance of the Passover by setting it in the context of the kingdom of God (Lk 22:16). The “deliverance” associated with the Passover finds its new meaning in the blood that will be shed (Lk 22:20).
* [22:17] Because of a textual problem in Lk 22:19–20 some commentators interpret this cup as the eucharistic cup.
* [22:19c–20] Which will be given…do this in memory of me: these words are omitted in some important Western text manuscripts and a few Syriac manuscripts. Other ancient text types, including the oldest papyrus manuscript of Luke dating from the late second or early third century, contain the longer reading presented here. The Lucan account of the words of institution of the Eucharist bears a close resemblance to the words of institution in the Pauline tradition (see 1 Cor 11:23–26). See also notes on Mt 26:26–29; 26:27–28; and Mk 14:22–24.
* [22:24–38] The Gospel of Luke presents a brief farewell discourse of Jesus; compare the lengthy farewell discourses and prayer in Jn 13–17.
* [22:25] ‘Benefactors’: this word occurs as a title of rulers in the Hellenistic world.
* [22:31–32] Jesus’ prayer for Simon’s faith and the commission to strengthen his brothers anticipates the post-resurrectional prominence of Peter in the first half of Acts, where he appears as the spokesman for the Christian community and the one who begins the mission to the Gentiles (Acts 10–11).
* [22:31] All of you: literally, “you.” The translation reflects the meaning of the Greek text that uses a second person plural pronoun here.
* [22:36] In contrast to the ministry of the Twelve and of the seventy-two during the period of Jesus (Lk 9:3; 10:4), in the future period of the church the missionaries must be prepared for the opposition they will face in a world hostile to their preaching.
* [22:38] It is enough!: the farewell discourse ends abruptly with these words of Jesus spoken to the disciples when they take literally what was intended as figurative language about being prepared to face the world’s hostility.
* [22:43–44] These verses, though very ancient, were probably not part of the original text of Luke. They are absent from the oldest papyrus manuscripts of Luke and from manuscripts of wide geographical distribution.
* [22:51] And healed him: only Luke recounts this healing of the injured servant.
* [22:61] Only Luke recounts that the Lord turned and looked at Peter. This look of Jesus leads to Peter’s weeping bitterly over his denial (Lk 22:62).
* [22:66–71] Luke recounts one daytime trial of Jesus (Lk 22:66–71) and hints at some type of preliminary nighttime investigation (Lk 22:54–65). Mark (and Matthew who follows Mark) has transferred incidents of this day into the nighttime interrogation with the result that there appear to be two Sanhedrin trials of Jesus in Mark (and Matthew); see note on Mk 14:53.
* [22:66] Sanhedrin: the word is a Hebraized form of a Greek word meaning a “council,” and refers to the elders, chief priests, and scribes who met under the high priest’s leadership to decide religious and legal questions that did not pertain to Rome’s interests. Jewish sources are not clear on the competence of the Sanhedrin to sentence and to execute during this period.
a. [22:1–2] Mt 26:1–5; Mk 14:1–2; Jn 11:47–53.
b. [22:2] 19:47–48; 20:19; Mt 21:46; Mk 12:12; Jn 5:18; 7:30.
c. [22:3–6] Mt 26:14–16; Mk 14:10–11; Jn 13:2, 27.
e. [22:7–13] Mt 26:17–19; Mk 14:12–16.
h. [22:14–20] Mt 26:20, 26–30; Mk 14:17, 22–26; 1 Cor 11:23–25.
j. [22:19] 24:30; Acts 27:35.
k. [22:20] Ex 24:8; Jer 31:31; 32:40; Zec 9:11.
l. [22:21–23] Ps 41:10; Mt 26:21–25; Mk 14:18–21; Jn 13:21–30.
m. [22:24] 9:46; Mt 18:1; Mk 9:34.
n. [22:25–27] Mt 20:25–27; Mk 10:42–44; Jn 13:3–16.
r. [22:31–34] Mt 26:33–35; Mk 14:29–31; Jn 13:37–38.
v. [22:35] 9:3; 10:4; Mt 10:9–10; Mk 6:7–9.
y. [22:39–46] Mt 26:30, 36–46; Mk 14:26, 32–42; Jn 18:1–2.
d. [22:47–53] Mt 26:47–56; Mk 14:43–50; Jn 18:3–4.
h. [22:53] 19:47; 21:37; Jn 7:30; 8:20; Col 1:13.
i. [22:54–62] Mt 26:57–58, 69–75; Mk 14:53–54, 66–72; Jn 18:12–18, 25–27.
l. [22:63–65] Mt 26:67–68; Mk 14:65.
m. [22:66–71] Mt 26:59–66; Mk 14:55–64.
o. [22:67] Jn 3:12; 8:45; 10:24.