Lists of Conquered Kings. 1These are the kings of the land whom the Israelites conquered and whose lands they occupied, east of the Jordan, from the River Arnon to Mount Hermon, including all the eastern section of the Arabah: 2a First, Sihon, king of the Amorites, who lived in Heshbon. His domain extended from Aroer, which is on the bank of the Wadi Arnon, to include the wadi itself, and the land northward through half of Gilead to the Wadi Jabbok at the border with the Ammonites, 3as well as the Arabah from the eastern side of the Sea of Chinnereth, as far south as the eastern side of the Salt Sea of the Arabah in the direction of Beth-jeshimoth,b southward under the slopes of Pisgah. 4Secondly, the border of Og, king of Bashan, a survivor of the Rephaim, who lived at Ashtaroth and Edrei.c 5He ruled over Mount Hermon, Salecah, and all Bashan as far as the boundary of the Geshurites and Maacathites, and over half of Gilead as far as the territory of Sihon, king of Heshbon. 6It was Moses, the servant of the LORD, and the Israelites who conquered them; Moses, the servant of the LORD, gave possession of their land to the Reubenites, the Gadites, and the half-tribe of Manasseh.d
7This is a list of the kings of the land whom Joshua and the Israelites conquered west of the Jordan, from Baal-gad in the Lebanon valley to Mount Halak which rises toward Seir; Joshua apportioned their land and gave possession of it to the tribes of Israel; 8it included the mountain regions and Shephelah, the Arabah, the slopes, the wilderness, and the Negeb, belonging to the Hittites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites: 9The king of Jericho, one;e the king of Ai, which is near Bethel, one; 10the king of Jerusalem, one; the king of Hebron, one; 11the king of Jarmuth, one; the king of Lachish, one;f 12the king of Eglon, one; the king of Gezer, one;g 13the king of Debir, one; the king of Geder, one;h 14the king of Hormah, one; the king of Arad, one; 15the king of Libnah, one; the king of Adullam, one;i 16the king of Makkedah, one; the king of Bethel, one;j 17the king of Tappuah, one; the king of Hepher, one;k 18the king of Aphek, one; the king of Lasharon, one;l 19the king of Madon, one; the king of Hazor, one;m 20the king of Shimron, one; the king of Achshaph, one;n 21the king of Taanach, one; the king of Megiddo, one;o 22the king of Kedesh, one; the king of Jokneam, at Carmel, one;p 23the king of Dor, in Naphath-dor, one; the king of Goyim at Gilgal, one;q 24and the king of Tirzah, one—thirty-one kings in all.
* [12:1–24] This chapter, inserted between the two principal parts of the book (chaps. 1–11 and 13–21), resembles the lists of conquered cities which are inscribed on monuments of Egyptian and Assyrian rulers. Perhaps this list was copied here from some such public Israelite record.
a. [12:2–5] Nm 21:21–35; Dt 1:4; 2:24–37.
d. [12:6] Nm 32:33; Dt 3:12–13.
h. [12:13] Jos 10:38–39; 15:36.
i. [12:15] Jos 10:29–30; 15:35.