Greeting.* 1Paul, Silvanus, and Timothy to the church of the Thessalonians in God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ:a 2grace to you and peace from God [our] Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
Thanksgiving. 3* We ought to thank God always for you, brothers, as is fitting, because your faith flourishes ever more, and the love of every one of you for one another grows ever greater.b 4Accordingly, we ourselves boast of you in the churches of God regarding your endurance and faith in all your persecutions and the afflictions you endure.
5This is evidence of the just judgment of God, so that you may be considered worthy of the kingdom of God for which you are suffering.c 6For it is surely just on God’s part to repay with afflictions those who are afflicting you, 7and to grant rest along with us to you who are undergoing afflictions, at the revelation of the Lord Jesus from heaven with his mighty angels, 8in blazing fire, inflicting punishment on those who do not acknowledge God and on those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus.d 9These will pay the penalty of eternal ruin, separated from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of his power,e 10when he comes to be glorified among his holy ones* and to be marveled at on that day among all who have believed, for our testimony to you was believed.f
Prayer. 11To this end, we always pray for you, that our God may make you worthy of his calling and powerfully bring to fulfillment every good purpose and every effort of faith,g 12* that the name of our Lord Jesus may be glorified in you, and you in him,h in accord with the grace of our God and Lord Jesus Christ.
* [1:1–2] On the address, see note on Rom 1:1–7 and cf. 1 Thes 1:1.
* [1:3–12] On the thanksgiving, see note on Rom 1:8 and cf. 1 Thes 1:2–10. Paul’s gratitude to God for the faith and love of the Thessalonians (2 Thes 1:3) and his Christian pride in their faithful endurance (2 Thes 1:4–5) contrast with the condemnation announced for those who afflict them, a judgment to be carried out at the parousia (2 Thes 1:6–10), which is described in vivid language drawn from Old Testament apocalyptic. A prayer for the fulfillment of God’s purpose in the Thessalonians (2 Thes 1:11–12) completes the section, as is customary in a Pauline letter (cf. 1 Thes 1:2–3).
* [1:10] Among his holy ones: in the Old Testament, this term can refer to an angelic throng (cf. also Jude 14), but here, in parallel with among all who have believed, it can refer to the triumphant people of God.
* [1:12] The grace of our God and Lord Jesus Christ: the Greek can also be translated, “the grace of our God and of the Lord Jesus Christ.”
a. [1:1] 1 Thes 1:1.
b. [1:3] 1 Cor 1:4; 1 Thes 1:2; 3:12.
c. [1:5] Phil 1:28; 1 Thes 2:12.
d. [1:8] Ps 79:5–6; Is 66:15; Jer 10:25.
f. [1:10] Ps 89:8; Dn 7:18–22, 27; 1 Thes 3:13.
g. [1:11] 1 Thes 1:2–3.