1 Maccabees


Letter of Antiochus VII. 1Antiochus,* son of King Demetrius, sent a letter from the islands of the sea to Simon, the priest and ethnarch of the Jews, and to all the nation, 2which read as follows:

“King Antiochus sends greetings to Simon, the high priest and ethnarch, and to the Jewish nation. 3Whereas certain villains have gained control of the kingdom of our ancestors, I intend to reclaim it, that I may restore it to its former state. I have recruited a large number of mercenary troops and equipped warships. 4I intend to make a landing in the country so that I may take revenge on those who have ruined our country and laid waste many cities in my kingdom.

5“Now, therefore, I confirm to you all the tax exemptions that the kings before me granted you and whatever other privileges they conceded to you. 6I authorize you to coin your own money, as legal tender in your country. 7Jerusalem and its sanctuary shall be free. All the weapons you have prepared and all the strongholds you have built and now occupy shall remain in your possession. 8All debts, present or future, due to the royal treasury shall be canceled for you, now and for all time. 9When we establish our kingdom, we will greatly honor you and your nation and the temple, so that your glory will be manifest in all the earth.”

10In the one hundred and seventy-fourth year* Antiochus invaded the land of his ancestors, and all the troops rallied to him, so that few were left with Trypho. 11Pursued by Antiochus, Trypho fled to Dor, by the sea,* 12realizing what troubles had come upon him now that his soldiers had deserted him. 13Antiochus encamped before Dor with a hundred and twenty thousand infantry and eight thousand cavalry. 14While he surrounded the city, his ships closed from the sea, so that he pressed it hard by land and sea and let no one go in or out.

Roman Alliance Renewed. 15Meanwhile, Numenius and his companions came from Rome with letters containing this message to various kings and countries:a 16“Lucius,* Consul of the Romans, sends greetings to King Ptolemy. 17Ambassadors of the Jews, our friends and allies, have come to us to renew their earlier friendship and alliance. They had been sent by Simon the high priest and the Jewish people, 18and they brought with them a gold shield of a thousand minas.b 19Therefore we have decided to write to various kings and countries, that they are not to venture to harm them, or wage war against them or their cities or their country, and are not to assist those who fight against them. 20We have also decided to accept the shield from them. 21If, then, any troublemakers from their country take refuge with you, hand them over to Simon the high priest, so that he may punish them according to their law.”

22The consul sent identical letters to Kings Demetrius, Attalus,* Ariarthes and Arsaces; 23to all the countries—Sampsames, the Spartans, Delos, Myndos, Sicyon, Caria, Samos, Pamphylia, Lycia, Halicarnassus, Rhodes, Phaselis, Cos, Side, Aradus, Gortyna, Cnidus, Cyprus, and Cyrene. 24A copy of the letter was also sent to Simon the high priest.

Hostility from Antiochus VII. 25When King Antiochus encamped before Dor, he assaulted it continuously both with troops and with the siege engines he had made. He blockaded Trypho by preventing anyone from going in or out. 26Simon sent to Antiochus’ support two thousand elite troops, together with silver and gold and much equipment. 27But he refused to accept the aid; in fact, he broke all the agreements he had previously made with Simon and became hostile toward him.c

28He sent Athenobius, one of his Friends, to confer with Simon and say: “You are occupying Joppa and Gazara and the citadel of Jerusalem; these are cities of my kingdom. 29You have laid waste their territories, done great harm to the land, and taken possession of many districts in my kingdom. 30Now, therefore, give up the cities you have seized and the tribute money of the districts you control outside the territory of Judea; 31or instead, pay me five hundred talents of silver for the devastation you have caused and five hundred talents more for the tribute money of the cities. If you do not do this, we will come and make war on you.”

32So Athenobius, the king’s Friend, came to Jerusalem and on seeing the splendor of Simon’s court, the gold and silver plate on the sideboard, and his rich display, he was amazed. When he gave him the king’s message, 33Simon said to him in reply: “It is not foreign land we have taken nor have we seized the property of others, but only our ancestral heritage which for a time had been unjustly held by our enemies. 34Now that we have the opportunity, we are holding on to the heritage of our ancestors. 35As for Joppa and Gazara, which you demand, those cities were doing great harm to our people and our country. For these we will give you a hundred talents.” Athenobius made no reply, 36but returned to the king in anger. When he told him of Simon’s words, of his splendor, and of all he had seen, the king fell into a violent rage.

Victory over Cendebeus. 37Trypho had boarded a ship and escaped to Orthosia.* 38Then the king appointed Cendebeus commander-in-chief of the seacoast, and gave him infantry and cavalry forces. 39He ordered him to encamp against Judea and to fortify Kedron* and strengthen its gates, so that he could wage war on the people. Meanwhile the king went in pursuit of Trypho. 40When Cendebeus came to Jamnia, he began to harass the people and to make incursions into Judea, where he took people captive and massacred them. 41As the king ordered, he fortified Kedron and stationed cavalry and infantry there, so that they could go out and patrol the roads of Judea.

* [15:1] Antiochus: Antiochus VII Sidetes, son of Demetrius I, and younger brother of Demetrius II (now a prisoner of the Parthians). At the age of twenty he set out from the island of Rhodes to take his brother’s place and drive out the usurper Trypho.

* [15:10] The one hundred and seventy-fourth year: 138 B.C.

* [15:11] Dor, by the sea: a fortress on the Palestinian coast, fifteen miles south of Carmel.

* [15:16] Lucius: perhaps Lucius Caecilius Metellus, consul in 142 B.C., or Lucius Calpurnicus Piso, consul in 140–139 B.C. This document pertains to Simon’s first years as leader.

* [15:22] Attalus: Attalus II of Pergamum, reigned 159–138 B.C. Ariarthes: Ariarthes V of Cappadocia, reigned 162–130 B.C. Arsaces: see note on 14:2.

* [15:37] Orthosia: a port between Tripoli and the Eleutherus River.

* [15:39] Kedron: a few miles southeast of Jamnia and facing the fortress of Gazara held by John Hyrcanus (13:53; 16:1).

a. [15:15] 1 Mc 8:17; 12:16; 14:22, 24.

b. [15:18] 1 Mc 14:24.

c. [15:27] 1 Mc 15:59.

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